Equine influenza symptoms are also seen in other respiratory diseases, including Strangles, equine herpesvirus-1 and -4, streptococcus infection and bacterial pneumonia. Equine Influenza Vaccination . Vaccines protecting against diseases such as equine influenza virus (EIV), equine herpesvirus (EHV-1/4, rhinopneumonitis), equine viral arteritis … REGISTRATION HOLDERIntervet South Africa (Pty) Ltd.20 Spartan Road, Spartan1619, RSATel: +27 (0) 11 923 9300  Fax: +27 (0) 11 392 3158www.msd-animal-health.co.za, MANUFACTURERIntervet International B.V.35 Wim de KörverstraatBoxmeer, The Netherlands, DATE OF PUBLICATION OF PACKAGE INSERT6 February 2017. The vaccine is only approved for use … Do not freeze. These outbreaks were caused by h3n8 equine influenza viruses (eivs) of the American lineage. In these countries most outbreaks are minor and sporadic, because of the high level of vaccination. South Africa said it has received an inadequate amount of flu vaccine, compounding the problems the country faces in fighting the spread of the coronavirus, which has some similar symptoms. Because influenza viruses are constantly changing and immunity from vaccine lasts for about a year, it is necessary to get vaccinated each year before the influenza season. Tetanus toxoid: 40 Lf**. The infection causes an elevated temperature and coughing which is an easy method of spread from one horse to another. After challenge infection, there were statistically significantly decreased clinical scores and virus shedding was significantly lower in the vaccinated ponies compared to unvaccinated controls. Protection against Equine influenza Natural or experimental infection with EIV induces protection against re-infection with a homologous The revaccination with Equilis® Prequenza TE or Equilis® Prequenza results in immunity to equine influenza for at least 12 months.The second revaccination is given 12 months after the first revaccination.The alternate use, at 12 months interval, of Equilis® Prequenza is recommended to maintain immunity levels for the influenza component. Equine influenza (EI) caused by equine influenza virus (EIV), an Orthomyxovirus, is usually a self‐limiting disease characterised by pyrexia, coughing and nasal discharge. A severe influenza outbreak occurred in horses in South Africa in 1986. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. The OIE also convenes an Expert Surveillance Panel on Equine Influenza Vaccine that examines the strains of virus in circulation making recommendations on which strains should be included in the vaccines. South Africa 03, and they are monitored closely to help us in prevention and control. In 1987 and 1989, major epidemics occurred in India and China, respectively. Horses not vaccinated previously and seronegative for equine influenza based on haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay were assigned at random to vaccinated (n=7) or non-vaccinated (control, n=5) groups. Do not store partially used containers for future use and use the entire contents when opened. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, © 2021 British Equine Veterinary Association, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. The Influenza Program in South Africa started in 2007 and has both a national and regional focus. Store in the dark between 2 °C and 8 °C. Daly J(1), Daas A, Behr-Gross ME. The vaccine was one of the H1N1 vaccines approved for use by the European Commission in September 2009, upon the recommendations of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA). Results: At the time of challenge, all vaccinated ponies had high levels of antibody to Newmarket/1/93, Newmarket/2/93 and South Africa/4/03 strains measured by single radial haemolysis. Daly J M, Sindle T, Tearle J, Barquero N, Newton J R & Corning S (2007) Equine influenza vaccine containing older H3N8 strains offers protection against A/eq/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) strain in a short-term vaccine efficacy study. A transient swelling may occur after vaccination regressing within 2 days. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. The highly contagious nature of equine influenza means that it has the potential to seriously compromise international movement of horses. Influenza is endemic in the equine population of the United States and throughout much of the world, with the notable exceptions of New Zealand, Australia, and Iceland. Purified haemagglutinin/neuraminidase subunits from equine influenza viruses: Avoid prolonged or repetitive exposure to high ambient temperatures following withdrawal from the refrigerator prior to use. 1 The mortality rate associated with EI is very low, unless disease is exacerbated by secondary bacterial infection or continued work of the horse. In 1986, South Africa experienced its first influenza epidemic. The risk of influenza is higher for young horses than older horses but is usually not fatal. Influenza Vaccine. The basic vaccination course results in immunity to tetanus for at least 17 months. INDICATIONSEquilis® Prequenza TE is indicated for the active immunisation of healthy horses and ponies against equine influenza. No. Equine Influenza is a viral respiratory disease which is highly contagious to susceptible horses. STORAGE. Equine influenza is a common respiratory infection of horses caused by an orthomyxovirus of the genus influenza A. Annual vaccines should contain 15μg of each haemagglutinin antigen in each 0.5ml dose. EQUINE ROTAVIRUS Vaccine * is for the vaccination of pregnant mares to provide passive transfer of antibodies to foals against equine rotavirus. Equine influenza vaccine containing older H3N8 strains offers protection against A/eq/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) strain in a short‐term vaccine efficacy study J. M. DALY Centre for Preventive Medicine, Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7UU Historically, EIV outbreaks have caused high levels of equine illness and economic damage. A primary vaccination course may be considered necessary in horses that have not been suitably primed. ... by influenza A/equi-2/Ohio/2003 or A/equi-2/South Africa/4/2003. COMPOSITIONEquilis® Prequenza TE is a vaccine suspension containing per 1 mℓ: Tetanus toxoid                                 : 40 Lf**, Purified saponin (adjuvant)         : 375 µg, **  Flocculation equivalents; corresponds with ≥ 30 IU/mℓ guinea pig serum in the Ph.Eur. The risk for EIV infection is not limited to equids; dogs, cats, and humans are susceptible. Influenza A viruses can be divided into sub-types on the basis of the antigenic reactivity of the surface glycoproteins, the haemagglutinin (H1–H16) and neuraminidase (N1–N9) molecules (Fouchier et al., 2005). An extensive outbreak of equine influenza in South America during 2012 was caused by a virus belonging to Florida clade 1, closely related to strains circulating in the USA in 2011. Vaccines 2014, 2 800 1.3. Ensure that vaccination equipment (needles, syringes, etc.) DIRECTIONS FOR USE – USE ONLY AS DIRECTED.Shake well before use.Intramuscular injection of 1 dose (1 mℓ) per animal. Local RegulationsAlthough Equilis® Prequenza TE or Equilis® Prequenza results in immunity for 12 months, local Jockey Club and Horse Society regulations should be adhered to. Influenza is one of the most common respiratory diseases in the equine. South Africa has secured 20 million doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech coronavirus vaccine, the health minister told a Sunday newspaper. The 2019 South African influenza season, which started towards the end of April, is ongoing. Equine Herpesvirus is also known as equine viral rhinopneumonitis. PRESENTATIONCardboard box with 10 x 1 mℓ glass vials or cardboard box with 1, 5 or 10 x 1 mℓ pre-filled syringes (needle enclosed). There is no information on influenza vaccine efficacy in tropical Africa. A modified live equine AE-2 influenza vaccine for intranasal administration has recently become available commercially. The basic vaccination course results in immunity to equine influenza lasting at least 5 months. Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a common, highly contagious equid respiratory disease. Dosing and Administration Pregnant mares, inject one 1 mL dose intramuscularly at the eighth month of pregnancy using aseptic technique. Pandemrix is an influenza vaccine for influenza pandemics, such as the 2009 flu pandemic.The vaccine was developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and patented in September 2006.. ProteqFlu-Te is a vaccine intended to protect against equine influenza and tetanus. Since the previous meeting of the Expert Surveillance Panel in March 2018, outbreaks of equine influenza have been reported in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America.. Sources of equine influenza viruses characterised. … PREGNANCY AND LACTATIONCan be used in pregnant mares, but handling of such animals, particularly in the later stage of pregnancy, is not without risk and care should be taken to avoid stress. Allow the vaccine to reach room temperature (15 °C to 25 °C) before use. Global Equine Influenza Vaccine Market is estimated to be valued US$ XX.X million in 2019. Influenza activity in 2019-20; Since the previous meeting in April 2019, outbreaks of equine influenza were reported in Africa, Asia, Europe and North America. In the past 20 years serious outbreaks have occurred in a number of countries (including Australia in 2007), associated with importations of subclinically infecte… Equine influenza (horse flu) is the disease caused by strains of influenza A that are enzootic in horse species. Vaccinated ponies developed elevated levels of EIV-specific SRH antibody and increased percentage of EIV-specific IFNgamma(+) PBL, whereas these responses were only detected after challenge infection in unvaccinated control ponies. Strains are named after the location and the year in which they were first discovered, e.g. Observe aseptic conditions. Learn more. Antigenic analyses of the hemagglutinin (HA) with ferret antisera and monoclonal antibodies showed that the Eq/Johannesburg/86 virus is similar to recent equine H3 viruses. We estimated that the direct impact of vaccination could avert more than 390 prescriptions per 100 000 population per year if a 50% efficacious influenza vaccine at 30% coverage was introduced to adults >65 years old in South Africa or children 2–5 years old in Senegal. In this case the alternate use of Equilis® Prequenza TE or Equilis® Prequenza is recommended. Nationally, the Influenza Program provides technical expertise and financial resources to support national respiratory surveillance, pandemic preparedness, applied research, and implementation of influenza vaccine policy in South Africa. Accidental self-injection may lead to a severe local allergic reaction. Fatal multiple outbreaks of equine influenza H3N8 in Nigeria, 2019: The first introduction of Florida clade 1 to West Africa Author links open overlay panel Ismaila Shittu a Clement A. Meseko a Lanre P. Sulaiman a Bitrus Inuwa a Mohammad Mustapha b Pakachi S. Zakariya c Aliyu A. Muhammad d Umar Muhammad e Yakubu J. Atuman f Israel J. Barde g Bianca Zecchin h Erika G. Quaranta h David … Equine Influenza. In fact, the spread of […] Equine influenza is a highly contagious disease of horses. G3774 (Act 36/1947)Namibia Reg.No. Historically, EIV outbreaks have caused high levels of equine illness and economic damage. Equine influenza (EI) virus or ‘Equine Flu’ is a highly contagious viral pathogen causing respiratory disease and is considered endemic in Europe and North America. Does that mean horses need boosters when receiving a different EIV vaccine than they’ve gotten in the past? South Africa does not have the ability to produce influenza vaccines, that we would be reliant on vaccine stocks from developed countries, and that these might be slow in coming. Potential relevance: When variant strains of equine influenza virus first emerge, booster immunisations with currently available vaccines may limit infection provided sufficiently high antibody levels are achieved, suggesting that vaccination in the face of an outbreak may be beneficial. RevaccinationThe first revaccination (third dose) is given 5 months after the basic vaccination course. Vaccines are produced according to the guidelines in Chapter 2.5.7 of the OIE . V07/24.6/55 NS0. Introduction Equine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease of horses and other equidae, including donkeys and ponies. The vaccine formulation for the 2019 influenza season contains an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus, an A/Switzerland/8060/2017 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/ Colorado/06/2017-like virus … EI is endemic in Europe (except Iceland) and in North and South America. The vaccine was one of the H1N1 vaccines approved for use by the European Commission in September 2009, upon the recommendations of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA). Dispose of any unused vaccine as well as all empty vaccine containers and vaccination equipment according to local waste disposal regulations. A major potential problem with inactivated vaccines is their inability to provide a protective immune response for foals with maternally derived antibodies. The virus was introduced following the importation of six horses from the United States of America. The majority of the recreational horse populations in Australia, Kazakhstan, Equine influenza A (H3N8) viruses were isolated and/or characterised from outbreaks in the People’s Republic … The risk for EIV infection is not limited to equids; dogs, cats, and humans are susceptible. Foals should be vaccinated from the age of 6 months. Conclusions and recommendations Influenza activity – 2018/19. The outcome of challenge in vaccinated ponies was compared with that in unvaccinated animals. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Because influenza viruses are constantly changing and immunity from vaccine lasts for about a year, it is necessary to get vaccinated each year before the influenza season. Since the previous meeting of the Expert Surveillance Panel in April 2019, outbreaks of equine influenza have been reported in Africa, North America, Asia and Europe.. Sources of equine influenza viruses characterised. Not all equine influenza vaccines are the same. Equilis Prequenza is a vaccine for use in horses. Daly J M, Sindle T, Tearle J, Barquero N, Newton J R & Corning S (2007) Equine influenza vaccine containing older H3N8 strains offers protection against A/eq/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) strain in a short-term vaccine efficacy study. The OIE now considers H7N7 strains likely to be extinct since these strains have not been isolated for over 20 years. The report on Equine Influenza Vaccine Market provides qualitative as well as quantitative analysis in terms of market dynamics, competition scenarios, opportunity analysis, market growth, etc. Emergency vaccinationThe vaccine can be used together with tetanus antiserum for the treatment of injured horses that have not been immunised against tetanus. Several formulations of seasonal influenza vaccine are available and licensed for use in South Africa. The protective efficacy of this ISCOM-based vaccine against challenge infection with a recent equine influenza (H3N8; A/eq/South Africa/4/03) strain was also evaluated. RevaccinationThe first revaccination for tetanus can be given 17 months after the basic vaccination course. Equine influenza is spread by inhalation. EI is endemic in Europe (except Iceland) and in North and South America. Influenza Vaccine. READ MORE: How 10 million Pfizer virus vaccine doses will work in Australia Consult a physician immediately and show this package insert to the physician. Pandemrix is an influenza vaccine for influenza pandemics, such as the 2009 flu pandemic.The vaccine was developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and patented in September 2006.. Vaccinations are an important part of preventative health planning, with appropriate vaccination helping to protect your horse from a number of important, sometimes life-threatening diseases. The disease is spread directly from horse to horse as airborne virus particles in the environment, or via contamination of clothing or equipment. Introduction. The vaccine is only approved for use … Vet Rec 167 (10), 382-383 PubMed . The virus is highly contagious and can be spread from equine to equine over distances as far as 30 yards by snorting or coughing, through saliva and mucuos. Vaccinated ponies developed elevated levels of EIV-specific SRH antibody and increased percentage of EIV-specific IFNgamma(+) PBL, whereas these responses were only detected after challenge infection in unvaccinated control ponies. A/equine-2/ Newmarket/2/93: 50 AU. Introduction. … Equine influenza continues to be a worldwide problem, causing outbreaks even in vaccinated equine populations. In some cases fever may occur after vaccination. Conclusion: Two doses of Duvaxyn IE‐T Plus provides good clinical and virological protection against challenge with a variant virus 2 weeks after the 2 doses of vaccine. Indicated for the active immunisation of healthy horses and ponies against influenza and tetanus. It is also indicated for the active immunisation against tetanus to prevent disease and mortality. In that case, the first dose of the basic vaccination can be combined with administration of the appropriate prophylactic dose of tetanus antiserum at a separate injection site. Equine-2 influenza A virus (H3N8) infection first occurred among naïve horses in South Africa in December 1986. Equine Vet J 39 (5), 446-450 PubMed. In these countries most outbreaks are minor and sporadic, because of the high level of vaccination. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Learn about our remote access options, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7UU. If vaccination is performed before 6 months of age full protection can be expected after the third vaccination (first revaccination). It is good vaccination practice when handling the vaccine to avoid contact with the eyes, hands and clothing. When a third injection with a vaccine containing tetanus is given at 5 months after basic vaccination, the next tetanus vaccination can be administered after 24 months. The vaccine is available as a suspension for injection. It reduces the severity and duration of clinical signs and reduces the amount and duration of viral shedding after infection. Methods: The vaccine efficacy was evaluated by challenge infection with influenza strain A/eq/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) 2 weeks after a primary course of 2 vaccinations with Duvaxyn IE‐T Plus given at a 4‐week interval. Despite reports of vaccine breakdown with products containing the recommended strain South Africa/03, no evidence was found of significant antigenic drift. Equine influenza vaccine containing older H3N8 strains offers protection against A/eq/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) strain in a short-term vaccine efficacy study. Despite reports of vaccine breakdown with products containing the recommended strain South Africa/03, no evidence was … If this is suspected, seek veterinary advice and notify the registration holder. Introduction Despite the widespread use of inactivated equine influenza vaccine since the 1960s, the incidence of disease attributable to equine-2 influenza A virus (H3N8) has increased (4). The highly contagious nature of equine influenza means that it has the potential to seriously compromise international movement of horses. Recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccines were used in combination with animal movement restrictions to quickly control incursions of equine influenza into both South Africa and Australia. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN, UNINFORMED PERSONS AND ANIMALS. Effective vaccination needs regular update of influenza vaccine strains. These often recommend a 6-month vaccine interval. Equine influenza was first discovered in 1963 and since then has become endemic in many countries. Reasons for performing study: Surveillance of equine influenza viruses has suggested that strains included in currently licensed vaccines are a poor match for those predominantly circulating in the field. There is no information on influenza vaccine efficacy in tropical Africa. The causative agent was identified as an influenza virus [A/Equine/Johannesburg/86 (H3N8)]. It contains inactivated (killed) whole virus of two equine influenza (flu) strains (‘A/equine-2/South Africa/4/03’ and ‘A/equine-2/Newmarket/2/93’). SIR,— During 2007, major outbreaks of equine influenza occurred in Asia and Australia, affecting more than 100,000 horses. The protective efficacy of this ISCOM-based vaccine against challenge infection with a recent equine influenza (H3N8; A/eq/South Africa/4/03) strain was also evaluated. Fort Dodge Animal Health, Flanders Road, Hedge End, Southampton SO30 4QH, UK. Outbreaks of the disease are occurring with increased frequency worldwide despite the widespread use of vaccines. Assessing the ability of current equine influenza vaccines to provide cross-protection against emerging strains is important. Equine influenza occurs globally, previously caused by two main strains of virus: equine-1 and equine-2 . is clean and sterile prior to and during use. Researchers investigated. This is due, among other reasons, to the continuous changing of the virus. The antisera reference standard (reference EU SA/4/03 Y0000712) against A/equine/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare (EDQM) was used on each plate as a control. Conclusions: An extensive outbreak of equine influenza in South America during 2012 was caused by a virus belonging to Florida clade 1, closely related to strainscirculating in the USA in 2011. The influenza vaccine that is licensed for use in South Africa covers three of the common influenza strains (influenza A(H3N2), influenza B and influenza A(H1N1)pdm 09). EQUILIS® PREQUENZA TEReg. Outbreaks have occurred worldwide in the past decade. Equine Influenza is a viral respiratory disease which is highly contagious to susceptible horses. Transmission of influenza measured using the Viral Watch programme and impact measured using the pneumonia surveillance programme have both reached high levels. Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of equids considered to be of potentially major economic significance to the equine industry worldwide (Cullinane and Newton, 2013; Singh et al., 2018).Specifically, two influenza subtypes, H7N7 and H3N8, with avian influenza ancestry, are known to infect horses. Objective: To assess the ability of Duvaxyn IE‐T Plus to provide cross protection against the newly evolved South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) strain of equine influenza virus. Outbreaks of illness have been reported in Australia or New Zealand. It is recommended to repeat immunisation against tetanus after approximately 1 month. Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a common, highly contagious equid respiratory disease. It is estimated that one infected horse can easily infect ten in-contact horses causing the rapid spread of the disease. Influenza is endemic in the equine population of the United States and throughout much of the world, with the notable exceptions of New Zealand, Australia, and Iceland. Email: info@beva.org.uk. Equilis ® Prequenza is a vaccine suspension containing per 1 mℓ: A/equine-2/ South Africa/4/03 : 50 AU* A/equine-2/ Newmarket/2/93 : 50 AU; Purified saponin (adjuvant) : 375 µg * Antigenic units . Equine influenza OIE Expert Surveillance Panel on Equine Influenza Vaccine Composition, OIE Headquarters, 16 April 2020 Conclusions and Recommendations . Equilis® Prequenza TE is a vaccine suspension containing per 1 mℓ: Purified haemagglutinin/neuraminidase subunits from equine influenza viruses: A/equine-2/ South Africa/4/03: 50 AU*. 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